Cheyenne County is located in the southern half of the Nebraska Panhandle. It is one of the more historically colorful counties in the state and was organized in 1870.
Sidney, Nebraska is the county seat.
The County has a rich historical background relating to the Pony Express, the Union Pacific Railroad, pioneers on the Oregon Trail and the Indians.
The County, named after the Cheyenne Indians, was officially organized three years after the Union Pacific Railroad first crossed the area. It was mostly inhabited by Indians at the time.
Fort Sidney was formed as "Sidney Barracks" in 1867 to protect the Union Pacific employees. It remained a fort until 1894 when it was abandoned. The Pony Express had three stations located in the county
Kimball, Banner, Scotts Bluff, Deuel, Morrill and Garden counties were all formed out of the original area encompassing Cheyenne County, 7,460 square miles.
Today the county consists of 1,196 square miles and has a population of 10,000. Peak population was in 1960 at 14,828.